AskDefine | Define epidemic

Dictionary Definition

epidemic adj : (especially of medicine) of disease or anything resembling a disease; attacking or affecting many individuals in a community or a population simultaneously; "an epidemic outbreak of influenza" [ant: endemic, ecdemic] n : a widespread outbreak of an infectious disease; many people are infected at the same time

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Etymology

Borrowed from épidémique < épidémie borrowed from epidemia borrowed from (epidēmios) < (epi) "upon" + (dēmos) "people"

Noun

  1. Widespread disease that affects many individuals in a population
  2. In the context of "Epidemiology": An occurrence of a disease or disorder in a population at a frequency higher than that expected in a given time period.

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Adjective

  1. Like or having to do with an epidemic; widespread
    Epidemic hysteria occurred upon the incumbent’s reelection.

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Related terms

Extensive Definition

In epidemiology, an epidemic (from Greek epi- upon + demos people) is a classification of a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given menistral period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is "expected," based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during a specified period of time is called the "incidence rate"). (An epizootic is the same thing but for an animal population.) The disease may or may not be contagious.

Classification

Defining an epidemic can be subjective, depending in part on what is "expected". An epidemic may be restricted to one locale (an outbreak), more general (an "epidemic") or even global (pandemic). Because it is based on what is "expected" or thought normal, a few cases of a very rare disease like rabies may be classified as an "epidemic," while many cases of a common disease (like the common cold) would not.

Endemic diseases

Common diseases that occur at a constant but relatively high rate in the population are said to be "endemic." An example of an endemic disease is malaria in some parts of Africa (for example, Liberia) in which a large portion of the population is expected to get malaria at some point in their lifetimes.

Non-infectious disease usage

The term "epidemic" is often used in a sense to refer to widespread and growing societal problems, for example, in discussions of obesity, mental illness or drug addiction. It can also be used metaphorically to relate a type of problem like those mentioned above.

Notable epidemics through history

Famous examples of epidemics include the bubonic plague epidemic of Medieval Europe known as the Black Death, and the Great Influenza Pandemic which coincided with the end of World War I.

Factors stimulating new epidemics

Factors that have been described by Mark Woolhouse and Sonya Gowtage-Sequeria to stimulate the rise of new epidemics include:
  1. Alterations in agricultural practices and land use
  2. Changes in society and human demographics
  3. Poor population health (e.g. malnutrition, HIV, ...)
  4. Hospitals and medical procedures
  5. Evolution of the pathogen (e.g. increased virulence, drug resistance,)
  6. Contamination of water supplies and food sources
  7. International travel
  8. Failure of public health programs
  9. International trade
  10. Climate change
Several other factors have also been mentioned in different reports, such as the report by professor Andy Dobson and the report by professor Akilesh Mishra .These include :
  1. Reduced levels of biodiversity (e.g. through environmental destruction)
  2. Bad urban planning

Pre-emptive measures

To protect us against the emergence of new epidemics, several preemptive measures have been proposed by professor Nina Marano , and Andy Dobson. These include:
In addition, certain other measures are known to reduce the beneficial factors found above. As such, the measures would also decrease the possible emergence of new epidemics. These measures are:

Renewed concern

In August 2007, the World Health Organization reported an unprecedented rate of propagation of infectious diseases.

External links

epidemic in Afrikaans: Epidemie
epidemic in Arabic: وباء
epidemic in Bosnian: Epidemija
epidemic in Catalan: Epidèmia
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epidemic in Esperanto: Epidemio
epidemic in Basque: Izurri
epidemic in French: Épidémie
epidemic in Galician: Epidemia
epidemic in Indonesian: Wabah
epidemic in Italian: Epidemia
epidemic in Lithuanian: Epidemija
epidemic in Dutch: Epidemie
epidemic in Japanese: 伝染病
epidemic in Norwegian: Epidemi
epidemic in Norwegian Nynorsk: Epidemi
epidemic in Low German: Süük
epidemic in Polish: Epidemia
epidemic in Portuguese: Epidemia
epidemic in Romanian: Epidemie
epidemic in Quechua: Unquy mast'akuy
epidemic in Russian: Эпидемия
epidemic in Albanian: Epidemia
epidemic in Sicilian: Pidimìa
epidemic in Simple English: Epidemic
epidemic in Slovak: Epidémia
epidemic in Slovenian: Epidemija
epidemic in Serbian: Епидемија
epidemic in Finnish: Epidemia
epidemic in Swedish: Epidemi
epidemic in Thai: โรคระบาด
epidemic in Turkish: Salgın
epidemic in Chinese: 流行病

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

abounding, abundant, affluent, all-sufficing, ambulatory plague, ample, aplenty, average, besetting, black death, black plague, bottomless, bounteous, bountiful, bubonic plague, catching, cellulocutaneous plague, common, communicable, compact, contagious, copious, current, defervescing plague, diffuse, dominant, effuse, endemic, epidemial, epigrammatic, epiphytotic, epizootic, exhaustless, extravagant, exuberant, fat, fertile, flush, full, galore, general, generous, glandular plague, growth, hemorrhagic plague, in plenty, in quantity, inexhaustible, infectious, infective, inoculable, larval plague, lavish, liberal, luxuriant, many, maximal, meaty, much, murrain, normal, numerous, opulent, ordinary, outbreak, overflowing, pandemia, pandemic, pest, pesthole, pestiferous, pestilence, pestilential, plague, plague spot, plenitudinous, plenteous, plentiful, plenty, pneumonic plague, popular, predominant, predominating, premonitory plague, prevailing, prevalent, prodigal, productive, profuse, profusive, rampant, rash, regnant, reigning, replete, rich, rife, riotous, routine, ruling, running, running over, scourge, septicemic plague, siderating plague, sporadic, spread, spreading, standard, stereotyped, superabundant, taking, teeming, tuberculosis, universal, upsurge, usual, wealthy, well-found, well-furnished, well-provided, well-stocked, white plague, wholesale, wide-ranging, widespread, zymotic
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